There are three types of boiler combustion methods: stratified combustion (fire bed combustion), room combustion (suspension combustion), and boiling combustion. Various combustion methods have their corresponding combustion equipment. Fixed grate, chain grate, reciprocating grate, vibrating grate, etc. belong to the stratified combustion type and are suitable for burning solid fuels. Pulverized coal boilers, oil-fired boilers, gas-fired boilers, etc. are room-fired, suitable for powdered solid fuel, liquid fuel and gas fuel. Bubbling fluidized bed and circulating fluidized bed belong to boiling combustion method, which is suitable for burning granular solid fuel. The chain grate of the coal thrower has both stratified and chambered combustion modes, which is a mixed combustion mode.
1. Fixed grate: a kind of the oldest and simple structure of stratified combustion equipment, divided into two kinds of single-layer grate and double-layer grate A single-layer grate is made of cast iron, there are plate-shaped and strip-shaped B double-layer The grate has two upper and lower grate levels, the upper grate is a fixed grate composed of water cooling pipes, and the lower grate is a fixed grate of ordinary cast iron. The space above the upper grate is a wind chamber, below the lower grate is an ash pit, and between the two grate is a combustion chamber.
2. Chain grate: A combustion equipment with a relatively complete structure. Due to the high degree of mechanization (coal adding, slag removal, ash removal, etc. are all mechanically completed), the manufacturing process is mature, the operation is stable and reliable, manual fire can make the fuel burn more fully, and the combustion rate is also higher. It is suitable for large and medium , Small industrial boilers. Domestic chain grate can be divided into chain belt type, beam type and scale type chain grate according to the structure. A chain-belt chain grate is a light structure suitable for steam boilers with a rated evaporation capacity of less than 10t/Hd or combustion boilers with corresponding capacity. The B beam type chain grate uses a rigid beam as the support, and the grate piece is embedded in the groove of the support beam. When the chain wheel on the driving shaft drives the chain to rotate, the beam and the whole grate on it move with it. The C scale chain grate is suitable for steam boilers with a rated evaporation capacity greater than 10t/Hd or combustion boilers with corresponding capacity.
3. Reciprocating grate: a kind of combustion equipment that uses the reciprocating movement of the grate to realize the mechanization of coal feeding, slag removal, and fire setting. The reciprocating grate grate can be divided into inclined reciprocating grate and horizontal reciprocating grate according to the layout mode. The inclined reciprocating grate is of inclined ladder type. The grate is composed of alternately arranged movable grate pieces and fixed grate pieces. B horizontal reciprocating grate is composed of fixed grate pieces and movable grate pieces, and the grate pieces overlap each other.
4. Vibration grate: a kind of vibration exciter, beam, grate piece, tie rod, spring plate, rear sealing device, vibration exciter motor, anchor screw, shock-absorbing rubber pad, lower frame and front sealing device. It is composed of measuring beam, fixed fulcrum and other components. It has the advantages of simple structure, easy manufacture, light weight, low metal consumption, low equipment investment, good combustion conditions, high grate area load, and strong coal type adaptability. It has been used in industrial boilers.
5. Coal thrower: According to the method of throwing coal, the thrower can be divided into three types: wind thrower, mechanical thrower and mechanical-wind thrower. The mechanical stoker has the functions of a mechanical stoker and a wind stoker. It has two main components: the coal feeder and the coal blaster.
6. Boiling combustion fluidized bed: a gas-solid two-phase bed between a fixed bed and a suspended bed. The fluidized bed is divided into bubbling bed, turbulent bed and fast bed according to different fluidization speed. A bubbling fluidized bed structure consists of coal feeding device, air distribution device, air chamber, ash overflow outlet, boiling layer, suspension section, etc. Features: Adapt to coal types, strengthen heat transfer, save steel, facilitate the comprehensive utilization of ash and slag, have lighter environmental pollution than pulverized coal furnaces, and have a simple boiler body structure. B circulating fluidized bed is a new generation of high-efficiency, low-polluting clean coal combustion technology. Its characteristic is that the fuel and the desulfurizing agent undergo multiple cycles in the fluidized bed state to repeatedly carry out low-temperature combustion and desulfurization reactions. The main difference between the combustion process of C circulating fluidized bed and bubbling fluidized bed is 1. The fluidization velocity in the boiling layer of circulating fluidized bed is very high, generally 3～10m/s up to 10m/s, bubbling flow The fluidization velocity of the fluidized bed boiler is 1 ~ 3m/s.
7. Combustion equipment of pulverized coal boiler: The coal is first injected into the furnace to burn through the coal grinding equipment. The entire combustion process is carried out in suspension in the furnace. This kind of boiler is called a pulverized coal furnace. Its characteristics can improve the mixing with air, accelerate the ignition box and combustion, and have wide applicability for coal types, which is suitable for large and medium-sized boilers. The combustion equipment of pulverized coal boiler includes pulverized coal equipment, pulverizing system and pulverized coal burner.
8. Oil burner: It is composed of fuel injector and air regulator; it is a kind of combustion equipment that atomizes fuel oil and sends it into the furnace after being strongly mixed with air, so that the oil and gas mixture is suspended in the furnace. Oil burner is the key equipment of oil boiler. According to the type of fuel used, it can be divided into light oil burner and heavy oil burner. The viscosity of heavy oil is high, and a preheater is generally installed in the heavy oil burner. Most industrial oil-fired boilers are equipped with light oil burners.
9. gas burner: it is the most important combustion equipment for gas boilers. Gas burners include diffusion burners, atmospheric burners and completely premixed burners.
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